There are probably hundreds of different types of theoretical orientations and techniques that therapists use nowadays in the field of psychotherapy. Here, we offer to you as a consumer of wellbeing and mental health services, an overview of the ones that are practiced personally by me as a psychotherapist and counsellor.

Do take note that these descriptions are by no means complete or exhaustive. They are meant to give you an overview of the various modalities so you can make some choices. I feel information and psycho-education are fundamental in the process of mental and emotional, as well as physical and spiritual health and wellbeing, and that it is important that you are enabled to take that process into your hands.

Individual Psychotherapy & Counselling

What is face-to-face Counselling & Psychotherapy?

Counselling & Psychotherapy takes place when a counsellor sees a client in a private and confidential setting to explore a challenge the client is having, distress they may be experiencing or perhaps their dissatisfaction with life, or loss of a sense of direction and purpose.

By listening attentively and patiently the counsellor can begin to perceive the difficulties from the client's point of view and can help them to see things more clearly, possibly from a different perspective. Counselling & Psychotherapy is a way of enabling choice or change or of reducing confusion; it is also a way of uncovering wounds and creating healing. It does not involve giving advice or directing a client to take a particular course of action. Psychotherapists & Counsellors would see a client with unconditional positive regard, empathy and in congruency with themselves.

Couples & Marriage Counselling

Couples & Marriage Counselling

The relationship between you and your counsellor is one of the most important factors in the effectiveness of counselling. As someone who is trained to listen empathically and with a non-judgemental attitude to your problems, your counsellor can help you develop an understanding of yourself and others, and provide you with different perspectives and the support to work through the problems you face, facilitating positive change. It is a way of reducing confusion and enabling choice; it is about empowering you to find your own answers and solution and making a personal choice about a particular course of action. As such, the therapist / client relationship is collaborative and based on trust, empathy and unconditional positive regards, so that you are able to confide in your psychotherapist your thoughts, feelings and emotions.

Skype Counselling

Skype Counselling

  • • Convenient when you are abroad
  • • Therapy in the convenience of your preferred location
  • • Confidential - your discretion is assured

How it works

  • • Contact us to book
  • • Pay for session by bank transfer
  • • Book a 60 minute session
  • • Call therapist on a designated number

And if you are wondering what is the difference between Counselling, Psychotherapy, Psychology and Psychiatry:



Friends, family and colleagues may be looking for support, and in that case a referral to Knowthyself is most appropriate. If, on the other hand, you are very concerned about an individual's well being and would like to see them have counselling, we are able to take enquiries from you on behalf of someone else, but it is advisable that you have their full consent. It is most helpful if the individual in question can make contact themselves, as it is an important step in acknowledging that they may need assistance.


A brief history of Psychotherapy

The idea of psychotherapy was first developed in Vienna over a century ago, by the famous Sigmund Freud. Freud's work with patients led him to believe that mental health problems such as depression and anxiety were the result of keeping difficult thoughts and memories locked in the unconscious mind. Freud proposed that treatment should revolve around listening to the patient and by providing interpretation of their thoughts bring these memories into the conscious mind, thereby reducing symptoms. This idea led to the popular image of therapy, as individuals lying on the couch reciting their inner most thoughts to the therapist with a clipboard.

Although different forms of this therapy were established, the major change came in the 1950s, when a psychologist named Carl Rogers developed Person-Centred Therapy, which viewed all individuals as unique, and requiring unique solutions to their problems. Under this view, the role of the therapist was to create a comfortable, empathic and non-judgemental environment which would aid patients find their own solutions to their problems. While this view of therapy forms the basis of modern day psychotherapy, there are many approaches that are currently in use. At Knowthyself, this forms the base of all Therapies.


Why choose Skype counselling?

• A Psychologist must have a doctoral degree, and is a professional trained to conduct research, perform testing, and evaluate and treat a full range of emotional and psychological challenges. They may work in many different areas, such as research, teaching, administration or therapy. Those who specialize in therapy are called clinical psychologists.


What is a Psychiatrist?

A Psychiatrist is a medically trained professional who offers diagnostic evaluation and a treatment program of drugs or psychological therapy.

The term 'psychiatry' literally means the 'medical treatment of the mind'. It is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mental, emotional and behavioural disorders. In managing these conditions, psychiatrists have a number of methods at their disposal including pharmacological drug treatments, and psychological counselling. Unlike counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists, psychiatrists can prescribe medication in the treatment of problems. Knowthyself is associated to a number of psychiatrists who are specialists in addictions, OCD, depression and anxiety, and we would be glad to direct you to the appropriate one if and when appropriate.

Therapies and Methodologies

Acceptance & Commitment Therapy (ACT)

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)

ACT is a cognitive behavioural method of psychology that emphasises processes such as mindfulness and acceptance in helping individuals overcome the obstacles in their lives. A critical assumption of ACT is that pain and suffering are a normal and unavoidable part of human experience and that it is our attempts to control and avoid these experiences that actually lead to more long term suffering.

It differs from traditional cognitive behavioural therapy in that instead of teaching people to control their thoughts, feelings and actions, ACT teaches us to notice, accept and embrace. Fundamentally, accept what is out of your personal control and commit to action that improves and enriches your life. As such, the goal of therapy is not to eliminate certain parts of your experience, but rather to learn how to deal with these painful experiences and help clarify what is truly important and meaningful to you as way of inspiring you change your life for the better.

ACT views the core of many problems in our lives to be down to the acronym FEAR:

  • > Fusion with your thoughts
  • > Evaluation of experience
  • > Avoidance of your experience
  • > Reason for your behaviour

The healthy alternative is to ACT:

  • > Accept your reactions and be present
  • > Choose a valued direction
  • > Take action

What is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy look like in practice?

ACT can be delivered in many different ways; it can be long or short term or ultra brief depending on what you and your therapist decide together. During the session, ACT uses three broad categories of techniques:

  • Mindfulness: bringing one's attention to the present experience and learning to perceive thoughts, memories and emotions as what they are not what they appear to be.
  • Acceptance: Allowing these feelings and memories to come and go without struggling to control\avoid them.
  • Commitment: Discovering what values are important to oneself and be committed to carrying them out.

During ACT therapy you and your therapist will work closely together, in a 50 minute session, to enable you to accept and act on your inner thoughts and beliefs. Through metaphor and experimental exercises you will learn how to make contact with your thoughts, feelings, physical sensations and memories that you would have previously feared or avoided. You will learn the skills to recognise, recontextualise and eventually accept these events which will then allow you to develop greater clarity about what values are important to you and commit to the desired behaviour change.

What issues is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy best suited to?

ACT is a relatively new form of psychotherapy which was pioneered in the mid 1990s and developed out of behavioural analysis and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). It can be used to treat a variety of different psychological conditions, including depression and anxiety disorders. In particular, it is considered a highly effective treatment for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), due to its use of acceptance of the event, rather than attempting to change the feelings that occur because of it. It is also commonly used to treat pain whereby it helps individuals to accept pain and take the appropriate action to deal with it.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy CBT

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is a form of therapy in which the client and therapist form a trusted relationship in order to address and dissect issues causing the client distress. Both therapist and client work together to discover the most pervasive issue and begin addressing that issue first. Because of this, the client develops a respect for the ability of the therapist and trust begins to grow. The client forms a bond with the therapist by acknowledging that his or her primary concern has received attention.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy uses a practical approach in which the therapist helps the client understand the relationship between beliefs, feelings, and thoughts and the effect these have on behaviour patterns and actions. The client learns that his or her perception will directly affect his or her reaction to certain conditions and circumstance and that this thought process is at the root of behaviour.

CBT Tools and Approaches

CBT encompasses many different therapeutic approaches that have combined to create a fluid and flexible technique. Therapists will often use several treatment tools, such as journaling, challenging beliefs, mindfulness, and relaxation. They will encourage the client to recognize unrealistic perceptions and maladaptive behaviour patterns. Most people who receive this type of therapy usually do so for several months in sessions that last an hour at a time.

Process of Transformation in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

The process of transformation is rarely fully recognized immediately. Clients learn how to replace negative thoughts and destructive behaviours with beneficial images, beliefs, and actions that will facilitate recovery. Clinicians often use CBT for the treatment of many mood disorders in conjunction with mood stabilizing medications. The relationship between the client and the therapist must be one of complete honesty and trust in order for the client to be receptive and willing to commit to the changes.

How many Cognitive Behavioural Therapy sessions do I need?

The number of Cognitive Therapy sessions depends on your presenting issues. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy may short or long term. A first consultation will establish approximately, how many Cognitive Behaviour Therapy sessions may be indicated.

Constructive Psychotherapy

Constructive Psychotherapy

Constructive Psychotherapy is neither a modality nor a technique, it rather is an organisational framework, a growing organising principle to manage and work with a Client. It is not a linear foundation, but rather an evolutionary process where the most important instrument in the process is the psychotherapist, the healer by profession, a being in the process of becoming in collaboration with the Client, seeking the Client's help to help the client evolve in the process, being creative within the boundaries of constructivism.

It embraces diverse traditions in medicine, philosophy, psychology, and spiritual wisdom, and Clients are encouraged to view themselves as active participants in their lives. It is about constructing, organising and creating order, about finding meaning in life, change and the impermanence of life, about alternatives, contrast and the human condition. It is a way of thinking, of perceiving the world and who we are.

In Constructive Psychotherapy clients develop their own voices, take pride in what they have accomplished and take ownership of the changes they are bringing about.

Couples & Marriage Counselling

Couples & Marriage Counselling

Marriage Counselling, also called Marriage Therapy, is a type of psychotherapy. Couple counselling helps couples of all types recognize and resolve conflicts and improve their relationships. Through couple counselling, you can make thoughtful decisions about rebuilding your relationship or going your separate ways.

Couple counselling may be short or long term, depending on the issues. Couple counselling typically includes both partners, at Knowthyself we would work with each partner individually first, and then with both partner together. The specific treatment plan depends on the situation and this would be outlined at the first session.

Why is it done

Couple counselling can help couples in all types of intimate relationships — heterosexual or homosexual, married or not.

Some couples seek couple counselling to strengthen their bonds and gain a better understanding of each other. Couple counselling can also help couples who plan to get married. This pre-marriage counselling can help couples achieve a deeper understanding of each other and iron out differences before marriage. In other cases, couples seek couple counselling to improve a troubled relationship. You can use couple counselling to address many specific issues, including:

  • • Communication problems
  • • Sexual difficulties
  • • Conflicts about child rearing or blended families
  • • Substance abuse
  • • Financial problems
  • • Anger
  • • Infidelity
  • • Divorce

Couple counselling might also be helpful in cases of domestic abuse. If violence has escalated to the point that you're afraid, however, counselling alone isn't adequate. Contact us if you would like advice on this area.

What are the benefits of Couples & Marriages Counselling?

  • • Talk about all issues in a safe environment.
  • • Gain confidence in self-expression as a Couple and/or Marriage.
  • • Improve communication levels through practice and with therapist feedback.
  • • Learn to negotiate and compromise with one another.
  • • Learn to understand what is keeping you stuck as a Couple and/or Marriage and discover ways of moving forward.

What can I expect?

Couple counselling typically brings couples or partners together for joint therapy sessions. Working with a therapist, you'll learn skills to solidify your relationship. These skills might include communicating openly, solving problems together and discussing differences rationally. You'll analyze both the good and bad parts of your relationship as you pinpoint and better understand the sources of your conflicts.

Talking about your problems with a couple counsellor might not be easy. Sessions might pass in silence as you and your partner seethe over perceived wrongs — or you might bring your fights with you, perhaps even yelling or arguing during sessions. Both are OK. Your therapist can act as mediator or referee and help you cope with the resulting emotions and turmoil.

If you or your partner is coping with mental illness, substance abuse or other issues, your therapist might work with other health care providers to provide a complete spectrum of treatment.

If your partner refuses to attend couple counselling sessions, you can go by yourself. It's more challenging to mend a relationship when only one partner is willing to go to therapy, but you can still benefit by learning more about your reactions and behaviour in the relationship.

Couple counselling is often short term. You might need only a few sessions to help you weather a crisis — or you might need couple counselling for several months, particularly if your relationship has greatly deteriorated. The specific treatment plan will depend on the situation. In some cases, couple counselling helps couples discover that their differences truly are irreconcilable and that it's best to end the relationship.

Making the decision to go to couple counselling can be tough. If you have a troubled relationship, however, seeking help is more effective than ignoring your problems or hoping they get better on their own.

Existential Psychotherapy

Existential Psychotherapy & Counselling

& with Couple Therapy), anxiety/fear, food/body-image issues, addictions, mood disorders, social anxiety, low self-esteem, unresolved childhood issues, sexual issues and others. It is a clear, direct and honest approach helping clients work on their particular, unique, experiences, problems, dilemmas and issues. It is appropriate for both short and long term therapy.

Gestalt Therapy

Gestalt Psychotherapy

Gestalt Therapy is a powerful experiential psychotherapy focusing on contact and awareness in the here and now. By following the client's ongoing process, with special attention to both the therapeutic relationship and the client's style of interrupting that process, the Therapist can help the client to both work through and move beyond the painful emotional blocks. This frees them to begin to explore new behaviour, first in the 'safe emergency' of the therapeutic relationship and then, as appropriate, in the outside world. The emphasis of the therapy is not on talking about what has happened but on fully experiencing both what is, and what can be.

Gestalt Therapy is experiential, experimental and existential. Awareness, i.e. consciousness with appropriate emotions, as well as the aware enactment of actions which were formerly unthinkable, provides the kind of healing power which surpasses mere cognitive comprehension.

The techniques used by the therapist vary according to his or her personality as well as that of the client and his or her preferred mode of experience. Eugenia Gajardo at Knowthyself works with a rich palette of interventions, including the two-chairs, acting in and role playing.

Integrative Psychotherapy

Integrative Psychotherapy

Integrative Psychotherapy embraces an attitude towards the practice of psychotherapy that affirms the inherent value of each individual. It is a unifying psychotherapy that responds appropriately and effectively to the person at the affective, behavioural, cognitive, and physiological levels of functioning and addresses as well the spiritual dimension of life.

The term 'integrative' of Integrative Psychotherapy has a number of meanings. It refers to the process of integrating the personality: taking disowned, unaware, or unresolved aspects of the self and making them part of a cohesive personality, reducing the use of defence mechanisms that inhibit spontaneity and limit flexibility in problem solving, health maintenance, and relating to people, and re-engaging the world with full contact. It is the process of making whole. Through integration, it becomes possible for people to face each moment openly and freshly without the protection of a pre-formed opinion, position, attitude, or expectation.

Integrative Psychotherapy also refers to the bringing together of the affective, cognitive, behavioural, and physiological systems within a person, with an awareness of the social and transpersonal aspects of the systems surrounding the person. These concepts are utilized within a perspective of human development in which each phase of life presents heightened developmental tasks, need sensitivities, crises, and opportunities for new learning.

Integrative Psychotherapy takes into account many views of human functioning. The psychodynamic, client-centred, behaviourist, cognitive, family therapy, Gestalt therapy, body-psychotherapies, object relations theories, psychoanalytic self psychology, and transactional analysis approaches are all considered within a dynamic systems perspective. Each provides a partial explanation of behaviour and each is enhanced when selectively integrated with other aspects of the therapist's approach. The psychotherapy interventions used in Integrative Psychotherapy are based on developmental research and theories describing the self-protective defences used when there are interruptions in normal development.

The aim of integrative psychotherapy is to facilitate wholeness in the client, such that the quality of the person's being and functioning in the intrapsychic, interpersonal and socio-political space is maximized with due regard for the individual's own personal limits and external constraints.

Mindfulness & Meditation Therapy

Mindfulness & Meditation Therapy

Introduction to Mindfulness
Mindfulness has its roots in Eastern meditation practices which are thousands of years old. The influx of these great traditions into the West provided psychologists not only with an expanded view of the self and of human potential, but also with effective techniques for focussing the mind and managing negative thoughts, feelings and behaviours.

Many people spend much of their lives in a state of 'mindlessness' in which attention is allowed to freely wander from the present, swept away by whatever thought is arising at that moment – often ruminations about the past or fantasies about the future. This can be counter-productive, since focussing attention on the past and future can lead to feelings of guilt/resentment or fear/anxiety. Ironically, people often try in vain to resolve these negative thoughts by giving them even more attention and going around in a vicious circle (obsessions), or even acting them out (compulsions).

Fixating on problematic thoughts not only leaves us vulnerable to negative emotions, but also pulls attention away from other things in the present moment. Whenever we are not tuned into what that moment has to offer, we are essentially not living to our fullest potential. The key point is that we cannot stop negative thoughts from arising in the first place, just like we cannot stop clouds from passing in the sky – this is the nature of mind. However, once a negative thought arises, it's influence depends with how much time and energy we devote to it. Thoughts precede feelings, so keeping attention fixed on a negative thought will lead to negative emotions and, therefore, the most effective means of managing our feelings is managing thoughts.

Mindfulness Mindfulness is a state of mental awareness and focus that has been traditionally used in meditation practices, and has recently become popular as an element of certain cognitive behavioural therapies, such as Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, and Dialectic Behaviour Therapy.

Mindfulness & Meditation Therapy is simply being 'aware' – aware of what is as is, or what you are choosing to think moment by moment, and then learning simple techniques to evaluate your own thoughts for what they really are: just glitches in the 'software' of your brain. When you are mindful, you are aware of both your external surroundings and your inner experience, including your own responses to what is going on around you, in the present moment. The goal of mindfulness is to become aware without becoming attached to anything you are experiencing.

Thoughts form well-worn neuropathway routes in your brain, somewhat like the old covered-wagon train routes of the Orient Express. Some of those wagon ruts became six feet deep and they can still be seen today, and that is what your own neuropathways might look like, if you could become the size of an atom and get a peek inside your own brain.

Once you become 'aware' of your own thoughts, you will learn how to stop your own reactions to the 'stressors' (triggers) in your own life - you can't change people or events, but can change how you react to them. Then you will begin to learn how to have a dialogue with your own negative thoughts and manage the reactions that don't serve you. Self-destructive, self-sabotaging and plain mean-spirited thought patterns that are not helping you at all, you will learn to 'reprogram your brain,' by inserting new thought patterns, perspectives and beliefs that can and will inspire you to take action and to succeed.

And then you will learn to appreciate your own life, and you will learn how to change the structure of your own brain, and finally be free, all by simply being 'mindful.' It's a teachable technique. It's an ancient technique that now is gaining scientific acceptance because it works, and it is at the core of Knowthyself.

Although mindfulness is not difficult in itself, it requires a certain amount of self-discipline to focus only on the present moment, and not to get caught up in thoughts about the past and the future. For this reason, exercises in mindfulness can be helpful in giving a focus to mindfulness. Examples of mindfulness exercises are the raisin exercise, in which you take your time looking at, smelling, listening to, and eventually eating a raisin, and the body scan, in which you work through your entire body, just feeling the sensations of each body part.

What does mindfulness involve? Skills taught in mindfulness include:

  • Observation: paying close attention to what is going on around you
  • Description: being able to say what happened and how you felt in words
  • Participation: becoming involved in an activity without being self-conscious about it
  • Taking a Non-Judgmental Stance: accepting things as they are rather than judging them
  • Focusing on One Thing in the Moment: without distraction from other ideas or events
  • Effectiveness: doing what works rather than second-guessing yourself

Mindfulness also involves recognizing when you are running on 'automatic pilot' - acting without thinking about what you are doing, as well as developing an attitude of 'loving kindness' - a friendly, uncritical attitude towards yourself and others.Mindfulness also involves recognizing when you are running on 'automatic pilot' - acting without thinking about what you are doing, as well as developing an attitude of 'loving kindness' - a friendly, uncritical attitude towards yourself and others.

What may happen in a mindfulness & meditation session? A mindfulness & meditation therapist will help you establish a daily mindfulness practice, often mindfulness of the breath. They may discuss with you what situations and thoughts are problematical with a view to helping you become much more mindful and aware in these situations. There is no attempt to change your thinking, but simply to become more aware of the unhelpfulness of some thoughts. You may be encouraged to reflect on a difficult situation as it is happening or soon after.

Similarly you may be encouraged to stay with an upsetting emotion for some length of time so that you can become more familiar with it and perhaps avoid the need to bring a lot of resources to fighting it off time after time. In essence the aim is to allow you to have a different, easier relationship with problematical thoughts, emotions and bodily sensations. The result of this is an increase in well being, more control over your own mind as you spend less time dealing with difficulties and more resources for important activities. Often difficulties can disappear altogether.

What are the benefits of mindfulness & meditation?

Your mind is like any other part of your being, there are benefits from understanding how it works and you can train it to work better. Specifically a mindfulness practice has the following benefits:

  • 1. Stability of mind: maintaining your mind in an alert clear space rather than at the two extremes of a dull or agitated mind.
  • 2. Flexibility of mind: the ability to shift your mind to whatever object you choose, rather than having it bounce haphazardly between a number of issues
  • 3. Self awareness: being aware of the contents of your mind and understanding the typical patterns of your mind
  • 4. Acting rather than reacting: Becoming less reactive, i.e. when you are angry and choosing how you will act.

It's not called a practice for nothing. Like any other form of therapy real change will require hard work and commitment, in this case a commitment to maintain your practice six days per week.

How does it work?
While most of what we achieve is by 'doing', mindfulness achieves its ends by 'not doing,' simply by observing. It seems to achieve its success by allowing us to see our thoughts and emotions as just thoughts and emotions not something to rule our lives or believe uncritically. Thoughts like 'I must be stupid' are subtle and we generally believe them uncritically. By being mindful of our thoughts we gradually get the idea that they are just thoughts that we are having and there is no need to believe them uncritically. Similarly with a feeling like 'anger' we start to realize that it is a feeling that is currently strong within us but no more than that, we currently have anger, but it doesn't define us and it will pass. We stop identifying with the thoughts and emotions. Our mind ceases to be in the control of strong feelings and thoughts and slowly comes under our own control.

I have thoughts but I am not my thoughts.
I have bodily sensations but I am not my bodily sensations.
I have feelings but I am not my feelings.
I am something else.Who am I?

'Mindfulness is paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, and non-judgmentally.'
Jon Kabat-Zinn

What does mindfulness helps with?
Mindfulness is helpful with all of these Issues, including but not limited to:

  • • Pain management
  • • Self-knowledge
  • • Gain insight
  • • Creativity development
  • • Self-confidence
  • • Assertiveness

Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT)

Low Self-Esteem

A healthy level of self-esteem can serve us well in life - especially at work and in our relationships. Sadly, many of us suffer from low confidence and low self-worth, and even shyness. This lack of assertiveness can be detrimental to our feeling of self-esteem.

Counselling for low self-esteem involves an exploration of how it may have evolved (early experiences or more recent events), how it affects your day-to-day life, and how you would like things to change. Counselling will offer you the tools to reach those goals in the context of a safe and supportive therapeutic relationship, often drawing on existential, humanistic and other therapeutic approaches and techniques.

Person-Centred Therapy

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a very common anxiety disorder that is characterised by the presence of obsessions and compulsions that are felt to be unreasonable and that impair daily functioning. OCD can be very distressing as it may be accompanied by depression and may also negatively impact relationships.

Counselling treatment for a OCD involves working through a therapy program to control the Obsessions and associated Rituals. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) has been shown to be effective in controlling OCD.

Psychodynamic Psychotherapy

Relationship Problems

Relationships can be a great source of fulfilment. When they are problematic we feel pain, disappointment, guilt, rejection or loneliness. If you are suffering because of relationship problems, Counselling or Psychotherapy can help to show you healthier patterns of relating.

Counselling and Psychotherapy provides a safe and objective arena to discuss your concerns. The relationship with your therapist will be an important backdrop for good therapeutic work. You will gain self-insight into patterns of relating and work towards making more informed choices and more positive bonds with others.

Redecision Therapy

Quick Facts about Couples & Marriage Counselling

We face many pressures in life – in regards to jobs, home-life and personal finance. Relationships can suffer as a result of these pressures, or often as a result of a couple not getting along. In some cases Couples & Marriage Counselling may be the way to turn. Here are some quick facts to outline what this type of counselling is, what it is not and what it seeks to accomplish.

Relationship Counselling

Sleep Problems

Sleep is an essential aspect of our physical and mental functioning. It allows our body and mind to recharge and leave us feeling energised and prepared for another day. Yet, it is only when sleep becomes a problem that we realise just how important it is to our physiological and psychological health.

Inability to sleep can also be indicative of pre-existing issues. For example, depression, anxiety and stress can all lead to problematic sleep. This can lead to a vicious cycle whereby individuals can become severely distressed due to lack of sleep, which can then prevent them from going to sleep in future, leading to depression and so on.

Solution Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT)

Stress Management

Stress is one of the most common mental health problems in Singapore. In small amounts, stress can be tolerated and may even be constructive. However, prolonged or intense stress levels can impact our relationships, work performance, and lead to panic attacks and/or depression. Symptoms can include irritability, lack of concentration, sleeping problems, negative thinking, changes in appetite, lack of motivation, loss of libido, social withdrawal and mood swings. Stress can also contribute to physical symptoms such as skin disorders, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and digestive problems, headaches, muscular tension, high blood pressure and other bodily aches and pains.

Transactional Analysis (TA)

Work and Career

Work related problems are one of the leading causes of stress, poor health and damaged relationships. High levels of stress and anxiety at work can lead to both physiological and psychological symptoms such as headaches, high blood pressure, muscle tension, irritability, mood swings and breakdown. While working hard is something to be proud of, pushing yourself too far can be destructive. If you are struggling with a work-related issue, then you may benefit from counselling.

With over 3 million people in Singapore currently working, and most of us spending over a quarter of our adult life at work, issues surrounding our careers affects many of us. Some work-related problems can cause long term damage to your health, your relationships and overall quality of life. Fortunately, counselling can help. Together with your therapist, you can explore the factors that are causing you to feel such extensive anxiety and stress (such as long hours, too much work, pressing deadlines or bullying at work) and equip you with the resources to help manage these problems. They can also help in cases where you do not know which occupation to take up, or for those who would like a career change. Using cognitive, behavioural or other therapeutic techniques, your therapist can provide the support you need to move forward with your working life.